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Twitter Follow Retweet and Tweet Favourite CSRF Vulnerabilities

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[B]How we were able to find Twitter Follow Retweet and [/B][B][B]Tweet Favourite[/B] CSRF[/B]


[LEFT]We want to share 3 of our findings on Twitter which me and my friend Krutarth have reported to them on March 2014.My good friend @KrutarthShukla was testing Twitter and he was trying deeply to find something on it. And finally he got a Follow CSRF and after sometime later I also got Reweet & Tweet Favourite CSRF. So, we found 3 CSRF vulnerabilities on Twitter.
[/LEFT]

As you know On Twitter they send a mail almost daily with a following subject line Do you know test, tester and testing on Twitter? which contains the list of peoples who may know you on Twitter with there profile link which has a follow button which contains a link with a Url embeded in it using which you can follow the suggested peoples by twitter.


Also they send a mail once or twice in a month with a following subject line Tweets from Test, Tester, Testing and 5 others which Contains the list trends on Twitter for that month which contains Retweet and Tweet Favourite links with a Url embeded in it using which you can Retweet the tweets and make the Tweets Favourite which were suggested by Twitter. The links were as mentioned below.
[LEFT]

[B]1. To Follow Someone Url was like this:[/B]

[URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fintent%2Ffollow%3Fea_u%3D85273509%26ea_e%3D1387571444%26screen_name%3DKrutarthShukla%26ea_s%3D7ecb564dcfdd9f2fa1d4b9e8c4ceb80ebf4761d8%26refsrc%3Demail&sig=e1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c&uid=85273509&iid=60cfddd3808c47c29f88ec5e3a7f5742&nid=42+483+20131130&t=1[/URL]


[B]2. To Retweet Someones Tweets Url was like this: [/B]
[LEFT][URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fintent%2Fretweet%3Fea_u%3D85273509%26ea_e%3D1396125896%26tweet_id%3D442695320166617088%26ea_s%3D7ecb564dcfdd9f2fa1d4b9e8c4ceb80ebf4761d8%26refsrc%3Demail%26t%3D1%26sig%3De1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c%26iid%3D60cfddd3808c47c29f88ec5e3a7f5742%26uid%3D85273509%26nid%3D42%2B483%2B2013113[/URL]
[/LEFT]




[B]3. To Make Someones Tweets Favourite Url was like this:[/B]

[URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fintent%2Ffavorite%3Fea_u%3D85273509%26ea_e%3D1396125896%26tweet_id%3D442695320166617088%26ea_s%3D7ecb564dcfdd9f2fa1d4b9e8c4ceb80ebf4761d8%26refsrc%3Demail%26t%3D1%26sig%3De1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c%26iid%3D60cfddd3808c47c29f88ec5e3a7f5742%26uid%3D85273509%26nid%3D42%2B483%2B20131130[/URL]
[/LEFT]




So using these links the attacker can craft his own CSRF payloads by changing the nid, screen_name, tweet_id, iid, sig, ea_s, ea_e, ea_u and uid parameters value to attackers profile which can be executed using GET request on any Twitter account as the Anti-CSRF token parameter named as Sig and its values can be reused on any other Twitter account nor it ever expires.


Krutarth found the First one Using which an Attacker can Force any Twitter User to Follow the Attacker Twitter Profile Via CSRF on twitter main domain. The other two I have found Using which an Attacker can Force Any Twitter User to Re-Tweet Attacker Desired Tweets and Make Favourite Attackers Tweets Via CSRF on twitter main domain.



[B]So here are the Steps to Execute the Attack:

1. Twitter Follow CSRF[/B]


i). First Change the refsrc, t, nid, screen_name, tweet_id, iid, sig, ea_s, ea_e, ea_u and uid parameters value to his own profile same parameter values where ea_u & uid values are same for each users own profiles an the refsrc, t values were same for each of the users of the site and where the sig was implemented as a Anti-CSRF Token but it was reusable again an again on any other users accounts and also it was never getting expired and then Open the below mentioned CSRF vulnerable Url in any browser using any twitter account.




[B]Twitter Follow CSRF(Url Encoding is Must After Following Url [URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=):[/URL][/B]

[URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fintent%2Ffollow%3Fea_u%3D85273509%26ea_e%3D1387571444%26screen_name%3DKrutarthShukla%26ea_s%3D7ecb564dcfdd9f2fa1d4b9e8c4ceb80ebf4761d8%26refsrc%3Demail%26sig%3De1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c%26uid%3D85273509%26iid%3D60cfddd3808c47c29f88ec5e3a7f5742%26nid%3D42%2B483%2B20131130%26t%3D1[/URL]



ii). As this CSRF vulnerable url is executed in any twitter account the victims will start following the attackers Twitter profile.



[B]2. Twitter Retweet CSRF[/B]


i). First Change the refsrc, t, nid, screen_name, tweet_id, iid, sig, ea_s, ea_e, ea_u and uid parameters value to his own profile same parameter values where ea_u & uid values are same for each users own profiles an the refsrc, t values were same for each of the users of the site and where the sig was implemented as a Anti-CSRF Token but it was reusable again an again on any other users accounts and also it was never getting expired and then Open the below mentioned CSRF vulnerable Url in any browser using any twitter account.


[B]Twitter Re-Tweet CSRF(Url Encoding is Must After Following Url [URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=):[/URL][/B]

[URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fintent%2Fretweet%3Fea_u%3D85273509%26ea_e%3D1396125896%26tweet_id%3D442695320166617088%26ea_s%3D7ecb564dcfdd9f2fa1d4b9e8c4ceb80ebf4761d8%26refsrc%3Demail%26t%3D1%26sig%3De1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c%26iid%3D60cfddd3808c47c29f88ec5e3a7f5742%26uid%3D85273509%26nid%3D42%2B483%2B20131130[/URL]


ii). As this CSRF vulnerable url is executed in any twitter account the victims will start re-tweeting the attacker desired tweets.


[B]
3. Twitter Tweet Favourite CSRF[/B]


1. First Change the refsrc, t, nid, screen_name, tweet_id, iid, sig, ea_s, ea_e, ea_u and uid parameters value to his own profile same parameter values where ea_u & uid values are same for each users own profiles an the refsrc, t values were same for each of the users of the site and where the sig was implemented as a Anti-CSRF Token but it was reusable again an again on any other users accounts and also it was never getting expired and then Open the below mentioned CSRF vulnerable Url in any browser using any twitter account.


[B]Twitter Tweet Favourite CSRF(Url Encoding is Must After Following Url [URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=):[/URL][/B]

[URL]https://twitter.com/i/redirect?url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fintent%2Ffavorite%3Fea_u%3D85273509%26ea_e%3D1396125896%26tweet_id%3D442695320166617088%26ea_s%3D7ecb564dcfdd9f2fa1d4b9e8c4ceb80ebf4761d8%26refsrc%3Demail%26t%3D1%26sig%3De1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c%26iid%3D60cfddd3808c47c29f88ec5e3a7f5742%26uid%3D85273509%26nid%3D42%2B483%2B20131130[/URL]


2. As this CSRF vulnerable url is executed in any twitter account the victims will start Making Attackers Tweets as his favourite tweets.



[B]Twitter Follow Retweet and Tweet Favourite CSRF Vulnerabilities(Quick) POC Video:[/B]

[video=youtube;Xd8H7njuo54]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xd8H7njuo54[/video]


After some analysis we have found that when all these CSRF's were executing then they were actually triggering the follow, retweet and favourite button. But as the request executed after those buttons clicking then each of those request were containing the Anti-CSRF token which was properly getting validated on server-side nor resuable an it expires also but as the attacker was able to successfully force the Twitter users to click on the button without his permission, so even though the second request contains Anti-CSRF token cannot prevent this attack.





[B]Rootcause:[/B]


Sig token & its value e1839b9361a4b64acf3b4cc4f5dc8b1fe4cfb21c was reuseable for all twitter account and it was not expiring ever also get request was allowed.



[B]Impact:[/B]

All Twitter users are vulnerable to this CSRF attack using these vulnerabilities that Attacker Force Any Twitter User to Follow, Re-Tweet and Make Favourite Attackers Tweet Via CSRF.



[B]Recommendation:[/B]

Sig token & its value c069a14f1b1cca7b763679029fa3a0f4d94d40cd shall never be reuseable in the attacker own acount and any other twitter users account.


It shall be expired after use and it shall be 1 time useable.


It should be generated randomly on each request.


Instead of get method PUT method shall be used.



The vulnerabilities were mitigated by Twitter Security Team in 3 weeks.


So in this way, one can find CSRF also this way can be used to find same type of vulnerabilities on different websites.


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